"Providing Clear, Concrete Visual Supports with Behavioral Development Strategies to Promote Independent Reasoning Skills"

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in the School Hallway
or Other Specific Environments
Printable Charts/Lists at the Bottom of the Page

Green (2003) © "Red and Green Choices"  www.redandgreenchoices.com

During the SLP presentation at NOSERRC on April 13, 2005 a question was asked about providing an intervention strategy
for a 12 year old student displaying severe verbal and physical outbursts in the school hallways at high frequency and duration rates.

Excerpts from; "Red and Green Choices, A Positive Behavioral Development Strategy..." (Green, 2003)

Review Red and Green Choices Strategies Before Implementing Techniques or a Behavior Change Process

bulletRefer to the "Behavioral Stand; A 10 Part Plan to Developing a Specific Individual Approach" (pg. 37)
bulletRefer to the 12 Additional R/G Choices Key Elements, Strategies & Components
        (current in-service participants have this information in handouts)
bulletOther on-line writings as references:  "To the Bus!" and "The Fire Yell"

"Behavioral Trust"

bulletBefore beginning Red and Green Choices behavioral development processes, please be sure to acknowledge these two theories with the child receiving its intervention techniques; developing a "behavioral trust" (a R/G Choices principle) relationship through the selected "designated adult" (a R/G Choices principle).
bulletThe "behavioral trust" theory includes...   (pg. 31)
"when the adult always remains calm, consistent and firm (without negatively overreacting) throughout the entire behavior change process..."
"..support their feelings, remain in charge of safe situations..."
"...remain truthful to them.."
"...while meeting the calming, desired earned choice activities or green consequences of the student..."
bulletThe "designated adult" theory includes... (Step 3 of the 10 Part Plan)
"This adult should be available to provide Red and Green Choices strategies at any time, for extended amounts of time. Choose an adult that is able to fulfill this responsibility within all school environments." (pg. 39)

"...The student will need and want that one adult for behavioral guidance, assistance, respect and understanding. The student will rely on everything that adult has developed with them thus far. Meaning, the student has become familiar with the red and green strategies, expressions, tones, and so on, of that one adult. That adult becomes a static and concrete tool for that child to depend upon." (pg. 40)

"Other people involved with the behavioral process may need to be aware of, or acknowledge these principles. This will assist other adults' understanding of the behavioral development process because the student will most likely ignore a 'new' adult and their directions or interventions. They would need to go through the entire behavioral development strategies to gain the same type of behavioral trust and respect." (pg. 40)
bullet"Behavioral Rules of Engagement": (pg. 48) (another R/G Choices principle)
"Setting your own (adult) behavioral expectations for both calm and disruptive times, will prove significant in establishing a behavioral trust relationship."
"Children with behavioral concerns, especially those with autism or Oppositional Defiant Disorder need the adult implementing behavioral change strategies to provide understanding, calmness and assertiveness."
"Reacting differently during noncompliant situations usually causes confusion."
"Reacting the same way every time causes less confusion and overload during what children perceive as chaotic or already overloading circumstances."
"Students rely on adult reaction to learn or develop new behaviors."  (pages 48-49)

Begin Small

bulletBreak Down this Complex Behavioral Expectation Into Smaller Sequential Steps: (R/G Component 13)
As in the "To the Bus!" example, about a younger student continually flopping on the way to the bus.
bulletApply the Shaping Principle:
Using successive approximations or small individual 'green' steps, beginning with one 'green' behavior, to teach new, multi-step behaviors, or responses by adding more 'green' steps once the initial training and response is demonstrated with 'green' success (pg. 15)

bullet"Another example is a student walking down a hallway at school. Use small individual steps to teach the multi-step behavior by adding more green responses. A student must first learn how to stay in a line without straying, then learn how to stop when the line stops. Additional green steps would be keeping lips still while walking. A child may need one-on-one attention to take five steps with the behavior that will be addressed first. Then ten steps, twenty steps and so on." (pg. 16)

Reinforce the
Green Behavior

bulletOnce the behavior is broken down in to the simplest step, then expect this one 'green' step. Maybe it could be taking 5 steps in the hallway. Reinforce this accomplishment, and begin student understanding of green choices, by conditioning green.
bulletBegin applying the Pairing Principle
Concurrent presentation of a primary stimulus (adult reaction, voice, tone, expressions) and a secondary stimulus (green) to promote or condition the secondary stimulus (green) (pg.17)
bullet"Pairing of any reaction, chart marking and activities with red and green is at first necessary to encourage understanding of Red and Green Choices, and adult expectations." (pg. 17)

Introduce a Green Consequence to Green Choice Behaviors

bulletAllow the student to feel proud, happy and responsible for making her own behavioral choice. Provide a mobile list or chart to reinforce Red and Green Choices meaning.
bulletGreen Consequence:
Any (red and green) stimulus presented dependent upon a particular response (red and green behaviors) (pg. 24)
bulletPart 2 of "A Red and Green Choices Behavioral Stand; A 10 Part Plan to Developing a Specific Individual Approach":
"High Response Student Activity or Product
: Find a high student response activity or product. What does the student like, go to first, or do for an extended period of time?...

The high response activity or product must be continually monitored for effectiveness. Students may lose interest in a particular item, or they may find a new item or choice." (pg. 39)

bullet Motivation; Do the Consequences Meet the Needs of the Student?


# 9)

bulletApply Positive-Practice Overcorrection:
The student, having made an undesired red choice, is required to engage in exaggerated practice of the appropriate green behavior (pg. 26)
bullet"Designated Area": (a R/G Choices principle)
"Students with intensive behavioral concerns will need to learn new behaviors in a specific environment..."

"The area must provide high adult attention and extended amounts of time to address concerns using various red and green intervention strategies...

"A specific environment will assist with explaining red and green school choices and adult expectations to a student without disrupting an entire large group classroom.

"This also allow time to create positive-practice overcorrection situations within a controlled and calm environment."

Adults could provide many 1:1 opportunities for a student to produce and receive positive reinforcements to green school choices."

"Providing 'self-prompting' (
a R/G Choices principle) visual red and green aids will assist students with remembering what to do in another environment."
bulletEstablish a designated area to begin the behavior change process. Then practice taking a few step from this area, into the hallway. Always near the designated area, in the case of 'quick returns' to review Red and Green Choices within the area.
bulletI often practice taking new young (K, 1st grade) students on walks with me throughout the school building with one-on-one assistance to develop this behavior. We take a few steps, stop and practice the student staying right next to me instead of straying or becoming distracted by such a stimulating 'new' environment with many different activities and people moving around.
Then, when I eventually take the student outside, they've learned my exact techniques with red and green to stay with me.

One time, I did this almost daily with a student, throughout the school building, then mom came to pick him up early from school and we met her outside. As we spoke, I attentively monitored his behavior and straying, and reminded him "red or green". His mother stated "Wow!"; that this was the first time he stayed very near and didn't just go without her. She said that usually he wanders off, and that "that red and green is working". She then began it at home when riding bikes.

Sensory Items or Calming Approaches

bulletConsult with your Occupational Therapist (OT) for strategies and techniques.
bulletDoes the student need help calming due to overloading circumstances when in the hallway?
bulletRefer to "To the Bus!" and "The Fire Yell" for calming approaches.

Introduce the Undesired Behavioral Response in Red

bulletAlong with the green choice behavior, walking in the hall, provide the undesired red behavioral response.
bulletThis is the exact red behavior displayed. Is the student sitting, lying down, curling up in a ball?
bulletDraw or write it out with red.
bullet"Positive Opposites": (a R/G Choices principle)
"Always provide two clear and precise red and green choices with positive opposites when initiating the red and green process. Using incompatible behaviors promotes exact understanding of adult expectations." (pg. 41)

Examples: up/down   go/stay   run/walk   go/stop     pencil up/pencil down    eyes up/eyes down
bulletThen when, yes 'when' the red behavior is displayed, show the chart, and maybe mark out the high response student item or activity. It is an intensive process, to change a long-standing behavioral pattern as this new replacement or alternative behavior (walking in the hall) needs to be developed or shaped.

Introduce Another Green Step / Expectation

bulletBegin expecting a little more, once 'green' success occurs. (as in shaping)
bulletEither increase the time/duration or frequency of the green choices.

Red and
Green Choices

bulletBegin providing lists, charts, drawings or writings with exact expectations and exact consequences.
bullet"Remember, it should always be the student's choice. Ask the student: red or green?" (pg. 21)

Fast Choice"

bulletThe adult implementing behavior change strategies may need to provide calming approaches when adapting to this new environment or behavioral expectation may at times, become too much to handle.
bullet "When positively adapting to the school environment may be too much to handle at that particular time, it becomes the adult’s responsibility for calmness to remain." (pg. )
bulletDefinition: "to provide calmness in an already overloaded situation or reaction state, the trusted adult providing red and green behavioral theories, holds out their hand, holds up the #1 index finger while saying the student's red choice behavior (red stomp and scream), then holds up their #2 finger and states the student's green calming choice behavior (green go swing), while using a serious static facial expression and a deep voice tone, while eye to eye with the child" (pg. 21)
bullet"...should be applied when student's are well aware of behavioral choices.... It can also be used to provide a student prompting, so they remember their sensory items or calming approaches...  Green calm should already be established... It could mean to go swing, lie on the bean bag, or jump on the trampoline... When overloaded, holding a conversation may not help the situation. Calming the student should become the priority."  (pg. 22)


bulletRed and Green Choices, and the color green should be developing into a conditioned reinforcer.
bulletConditioned reinforcers: A stimulus (green) that has acquired or obtained a reinforcing (green) function through pairing (as previously described) with an unconditioned or natural reinforcer or desired green, high response student directed activity or product" (pg. 23)
bulletOne Target Behavior:
"...after red and green's initial implementation to develop behavior, more than one behavior can be chosen at a time."

...Once red and green is successful, it will overlap to create positive results for other behaviors."

..."Students will gain respect for the behavioral process and realize that developing positive behaviors increases their adaptation skills. In other words, it makes their environment more predictable and easier for them to handle." (pg. 38)

Charts / Lists:






Use these pictures and add consequences to behavioral choices. What will choosing green mean to the student? Is it worth it to choose green? Do the consequences meet their needs?

Write your own words or pictures to promote exact understanding.

Does the student need
words, pictures or both?
Is the student ready for a list with several choices?
What will the exact
consequences be?

Provide "self-prompting" lists around the school, or use this list as a hall pass once R/G Choices are established and no consequence - besides seeing red and green - is necessary. Is the student ready for this step? (This is an exact replica of a chart I used for a student.)

This may be helpful returning to the classroom, after successfully traveling to another place.

Does the student need to develop understanding of R/G Choices through "pairing" with your reaction, voice, expressions and voice tones? Has the student realized there is an exact relationship between his actions and your reactions?
Involve sensory or calming approaches as needed. Assist the student in making green choices. Consult with your OT or another teacher experienced with sensory needs. What calms the student at home? Parents can provide input, too.
Green (2003) © "Red and Green Choices"  www.redandgreenchoices.com

Contact Irene

POSTED   4/18/05

The Material Presented from "Red and Green Choices", Is Based Upon Irene's Own Behavioral Intervention Strategies, and What Types of Behavioral
and Academic Assistance Has Promoted Positive Outcomes With Her and Her Students When Applying Red and Green Choices Behavioral Principles

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