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Green (2003) © "Red and Green
"The Ziggurat Model: A Framework for Designing
Comprehensive Interventions for Individuals with High-Functioning
Autism and Asperger Syndrome"
By Ruth Aspy, Ph.D,
and Barry Grossman, Ph. D.
From Page 152:
"Another example of
effectively incorporating the principles of reinforcement is the Red
and Green Choices positive behavioral strategy (Green, 2003). Designed
for use with individuals across a wide age range, this system uses the
colors green and red as visual cues to indicate appropriate and
inappropriate behaviors. Goal behaviors are either drawn or written in
green whereas inappropriate target behaviors are represented in red.
Consequences for either type of behavior are also included."
"The Red and Green Choices system incorporates many behavioral
principles. Green (2003) describes specific elements of the system:
establishing behavioral trust, shaping, practicing, and establishing
the criteria for earning a reinforcer."
"Establishing behavioral trust. First, Green recognizes the importance
of establishing a positive relationship as an essential step in an
intervention program. Once a relationship is established, social
reinforcement is meaningful. Green refers to this as 'behavioral
"Green uses the principle of shaping, or successive approximations, in
which the goal behavior is broken down into smaller, more easily
"Establishing the criteria for earning a reinforcer. Lastly, Green
encourages careful consideration of the criteria for earning a
reinforcer. Tasks that are challenging require more valuable or more
frequent reinforcers than easier tasks to establish a fair 'trade'.
That is, if the task is very difficult (i.e., the price is high) a
small reinforcer may not be sufficient to motivate the desired
From the Cover:
"Ruth Aspy, Ph.D., is a licensed psychologist and author. She
specializes in assessment and intervention for individuals with autism
spectrum disorders. Dr. Aspy is co-creator of the Ziggurat Model and
speaks nationally on this and other topics. She has experience in both
clinical and school settings.
Barry G. Grossman, Ph.D., is a licensed
psychologist who specializes in assessment and intervention for
individuals with autism spectrum disorders. He provides assessment and
consultation services in the public schools as well as staff
development. Dr. Grossman is an author and speaks nationally. He
co-created the Ziggurat Model, which has been adopted at district- and
Autism Asperger's Publishing Company
P.O. Box 23173
Shawnee Mission, KS 66283
British "Good Autism
Volume 7. 2
"Red and Green Choices" Book Review
by Helen Joy
Forest Way School, Leicestershire LA
and Independent Consultant
Portions of the Review:
"Overall I have found
the ideas in this pack useful – particularly giving students the choice
of how to behave by showing them clearly (and visually as well as
verbally) the outcomes to any behaviour. This gives students an
opportunity to behave appropriately after having practise of how to do
"However most of the approaches
described can be adapted for various levels of ability and it is
refreshing to see something designed by a practitioner for those
youngsters with the most challenging behaviours."
"I would recommend this pack to parents and
practitioners working with children and young people with challenging
behaviour and ASD or other behavioural difficulties. Most of the
information is available on the website cited above. The information is
accessible and easy to follow and put into practise."
Please visit the web-site for more information
and the full article.
"PROGRAM HELPS KIDS MAKE GREEN CHOICES"
Article in Local Newspaper, December 2004 - Written by Dan Dearth
Photo in Newspaper Article
From "Cindy T's Circle Time"
"Instructors at... ...elementary schools are using an innovative technique to
help pupils with autism or behavioral problems learn more
Since 1998, Red and Green
Choices has helped children identify appropriate behavior by using a
color-coded system. Pupils are shown stick figures on green cards to
reinforce positive behavior, while red cards are flashed to
discourage behavior that is undesirable."
...an integrated preschool intervention specialist at... "...said
Red and Green Choices is used mainly to help "developmentally
delayed" children. However, all pupils start using Red and Green
Choices in pre-school."
said he stopped using Red and Green Choices last year, but his
current decision-making is based on what he learned from the program
at an earlier age. "I remember to use green choices instead
of red choices," he said. "Green choices help me learn. Green
choices help me feel happy."
"...W. R. said
her 8-year-old son, Ben, was diagnosed with autism when he was 3.
"I live Red and Green daily," she said. "I think a big part is
the visual support." "Ben has a hard time harnessing his emotions.
The program teaches Ben there are red and green ways to get mad --
red ways are kicking and punching; green ways are verbal.
She keeps a Red and Green chart in her home to monitor all three of
her sons' progress. She rewards them with dinosaur movies if their
charts stay green all week. "Always think about green," Ben