A Positive Behavioral Development Intervention Strategy for Children with Autism, Behavioral or Social Concerns

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Articles / Citations
Green (2003) "Red and Green Choices" TM www.redandgreenchoices.com

"The Ziggurat Model: A Framework for Designing Comprehensive Interventions for Individuals with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome"


By Ruth Aspy, Ph.D,
and Barry Grossman, Ph. D.

From Page 152:
"Another example of effectively incorporating the principles of reinforcement is the Red and Green Choices positive behavioral strategy (Green, 2003). Designed for use with individuals across a wide age range, this system uses the colors green and red as visual cues to indicate appropriate and inappropriate behaviors. Goal behaviors are either drawn or written in green whereas inappropriate target behaviors are represented in red. Consequences for either type of behavior are also included."

"The Red and Green Choices system incorporates many behavioral principles. Green (2003) describes specific elements of the system: establishing behavioral trust, shaping, practicing, and establishing the criteria for earning a reinforcer."

"Establishing behavioral trust. First, Green recognizes the importance of establishing a positive relationship as an essential step in an intervention program. Once a relationship is established, social reinforcement is meaningful. Green refers to this as 'behavioral trust'."

"Green uses the principle of shaping, or successive approximations, in which the goal behavior is broken down into smaller, more easily attainable, parts."

"Establishing the criteria for earning a reinforcer. Lastly, Green encourages careful consideration of the criteria for earning a reinforcer. Tasks that are challenging require more valuable or more frequent reinforcers than easier tasks to establish a fair 'trade'. That is, if the task is very difficult (i.e., the price is high) a small reinforcer may not be sufficient to motivate the desired behavior."

From the Cover:
"Ruth Aspy, Ph.D., is a licensed psychologist and author. She specializes in assessment and intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Dr. Aspy is co-creator of the Ziggurat Model and speaks nationally on this and other topics. She has experience in both clinical and school settings.

Barry G. Grossman, Ph.D., is a licensed psychologist who specializes in assessment and intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. He provides assessment and consultation services in the public schools as well as staff development. Dr. Grossman is an author and speaks nationally. He co-created the Ziggurat Model, which has been adopted at district- and statewide levels"

Autism Asperger's Publishing Company
P.O. Box 23173
Shawnee Mission, KS  66283


British "Good Autism Practice Journal"
Volume 7. 2
October 2006

"Red and Green Choices" Book Review
by Helen Joy
Senior Teacher
Forest Way School, Leicestershire LA
and Independent Consultant

Portions of the Review:

Overall I have found the ideas in this pack useful particularly giving students the choice of how to behave by showing them clearly (and visually as well as verbally) the outcomes to any behaviour. This gives students an opportunity to behave appropriately after having practise of how to do so."

However most of the approaches described can be adapted for various levels of ability and it is refreshing to see something designed by a practitioner for those youngsters with the most challenging behaviours."

"I would recommend this pack to parents and practitioners working with children and young people with challenging behaviour and ASD or other behavioural difficulties. Most of the information is available on the website cited above. The information is accessible and easy to follow and put into practise."

   Please visit the web-site for more information and the full article.


Autism - Asperger's Digest Magazine

May/June 2004 Edition

The magazine may be purchased for $6.00 (US) at the link below.

Link:  http://www.fhautism.com/cgi-bin/shopper.cgi?preadd=action&key=MAG2-44



Article in Local Newspaper, December 2004 - Written by Dan Dearth

Photo in Newspaper Article
From "Cindy T's Circle Time"

"Instructors at... ...elementary schools are using an innovative technique to help pupils with autism or behavioral problems learn more effectively. Since 1998, Red and Green Choices has helped children identify appropriate behavior by using a color-coded system. Pupils are shown stick figures on green cards to reinforce positive behavior, while red cards are flashed to discourage behavior that is undesirable."

...an integrated preschool intervention specialist at... "...
said Red and Green Choices is used mainly to help "developmentally delayed" children. However, all pupils start using Red and Green Choices in pre-school."

"...Fourth-grader... said he stopped using Red and Green Choices last year, but his current decision-making is based on what he learned from the program at an earlier age.  "I remember to use green choices instead of red choices," he said. "Green choices help me learn. Green choices help me feel happy."   

   "...W. R. said her 8-year-old son, Ben, was diagnosed with autism when he was 3.  "I live Red and Green daily," she said. "I think a big part is the visual support." "Ben has a hard time harnessing his emotions. The program teaches Ben there are red and green ways to get mad -- red ways are kicking and punching; green ways are verbal.  She keeps a Red and Green chart in her home to monitor all three of her sons' progress. She rewards them with dinosaur movies if their charts stay green all week. "Always think about green," Ben said.

Green (2003) "Red and Green Choices"
TM www.redandgreenchoices.com

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